The subject of this opinion is European and Belgian policymaking in the field of biofuels in transport, in the context of Belgium’s National Energy-Climate Plan 2030 and the 2018/2001 Renewable Energies Directive (2021-2030). This directive allows Member States to reduce and even eliminate the objectives to incorporate first generation biofuels into fuel, which have proven controversial from an environmental and social point of view. The European Commission must include the full range of biofuels with a negative carbon balance over the whole life cycle in the “high risk of indirect land use change – ILUC” category of biofuels, constituting a gradual phasing out and eliminating them completely in the run up to 2030, whereas Belgium must take advantage of the new room for manoeuvre offered by this new legislation to exclude first generation biofuels from its National Energy-Climate Plan (NECP) 2030. There are other levers available to decarbonise the transport sector.